Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C)and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
Any veteran nicotine addict will testify that fancy packaging plays no role in the decision to keep smoking. So, it is argued, stripping cartons of their branding will trigger no mass movement to quit.
But that isn’t why the government—under pressure from cancer charities, health workers and the Labour party—has agreed to legislate for standardized packaging. The theory is that smoking should be stripped of any appeal to discourage new generations from starting in the first place. Plain packaging would be another step in the reclassification of cigarettes from inviting consumer products to (麻醉剂).
Naturally, the tobacco industry is violently opposed. No business likes to admit that it sells addictive poison as a lifestyle choice. That is why government has historically intervened, banning advertising, imposing health warnings and punitive (惩罚性的) duties. This approach has led over time to a fall in smoking with numbers having roughly halved since the 1970s. Evidence from Australia suggests plain packaging pushes society further along that road. Since tobacco as one of the biggest causes of premature death in the UK, a measure that tames the habit even by a fraction is worth trying.
So why has it taken so long? The Department of Health declared its intention to consider the move in November 2010 and consulted through 2012. But the plan was suspended in July 2013. It did not escape notice that a lobbying firm set up by Lynton Crosby, David Cameron’s election campaign director, had previously acted for Philip Morris International. (The prime minister denied there was a connection between his news adviser’s outside interests and the change in legislative programme.) In November 2013, after an unnecessary round of additional consultation, health minister Jane Ellison said the government was minded to proceed after all. Now we are told Members of Parliament (MPs) will have a free voice before parliament is dissolved in March.
Parliament has in fact already authorised the government to tame the tobacco trade. MPs voted overwhelmingly in favour of Labour amendments to the children and families bill last February that included the power to regulate for plain packaging. With sufficient will in Downing Street this would have been done already. But strength of will is the missing ingredient where Mr. Cameron and public health are concerned. His attitude to state intervention has looked confused ever since his bizarre 2006lament (叹息) that chocolate oranges placed seductively at supermarket check-outs fueled obesity.
The government has moved reluctantly into a sensible public health policy, but with such obvious over-cautiousness that any political credit due belongs to the opposition. Without sustained external pressure it seems certain Mr. Cameron would still be hooked on the interests of big tobacco companies.
46. What do chain smokers think of cigarette packaging?
A) Fancy packaging can help to engage new smokers.
B) It has little to do with the quality or taste of cigarettes.
C) Plain packaging discourages non-smokers from taking up smoking.
D) It has little impact on their decision whether or not to quit smoking.
47. What has the UK government agreed to do concerning tobacco packaging?
A) Pass a law to standardise cigarette packaging.
B) Rid cigarette cartons of all advertisements.
C) Subsidise companies to adopt plain packaging.
D) Reclassify cigarettes according to packaging.
48. What has happened in Australia where plain packaging is implemented?
A) Premature death rates resulting from smoking have declined.
B) The number of smokers has dropped more sharply than in the UK.
C) The sales of tobacco substitutes have increased considerably.
D) Cigarette sales have been falling far more quickly than in the UK.
49. Why it taken so long for the UK government to consider plain packaging?
A) Prime Minister Cameron has been reluctant to take action.
B) There is strong opposition from veteran nicotine addicts.
C) Many Members of Parliament are addicted to smoking.
D) Pressure from tobacco manufacturers remains strong.
50. What did Cameron say about chocolate oranges at supermarket checkouts?
A) They fueled a lot of controversy.
B) They made more British people obese.
C) They attracted a lot of smokers.
D) They had certain ingredients missing.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
What a waste of money!In return for an averageof44,000 of debt,students get an average of only 14 hours of lecture and tutorial time a week in Britain. Annual fees have risen from1,000 to $9,000 in the last decade. But contact time at university has barely risen at all. And graduating doesn’t even provide any guarantee of a decent job:sixin ten graduates today are in non-graduate jobs.
No wonder it has become fashionable to denounce many universities as little more that elaboratecom-tricks(骗术). There’s a lotfor students to complain about the repayment threshold for paying back loans will be frozen for five years, meaning that lower-paid graduals have to start repaying their loans, and maintenance grants have been replaced by loans meaning that students from poorer backgrounds face higher debt than those with wealthier parents.
Yet it still pays to go to university. If going to university doesn’t work out, students pay very little—if any—of their tuition fees back, you only start repaying when you are earning 21, 000 a year. Almost half of graduates—those who go on to earn less—will have a portion of their debt written off. It’s not just the lectures and tutorials that are important. Education is the sum of what students teach each other in between lectures and seminars. Students do not merely benefit while at university, studies show they go on to be healthier and happier than non-graduates, and also far more likely to vote.
Whatever your talents, it is extraordinarily difficult to get a leading job in most fields without having been to university. Recruiters circle elite universities like vulturous(兀鹰). Many top firms will not even look at applications from those who lack a 2.1, i.e., an upper-second class degree, from an elite university. Students at university also meet those likely to be in leading jobs in the future, forming contacts for life. This might not be right, but school-leavers who fail to acknowledge as much risk making the wrong decision about going to university.
Perhaps the reason why so many universities offer their students so little is they know studying at a top university remains a brilliant investment even if you don’t learn anything .Studying at university will only become less attractive if employers shift their focus away from where someone went to university—and there is no sign of that happening anytime soon. School-leavers may moan, but they have little choice but to embrace university and the student debt that comes with it.
51. What is the author’s opinion of going to university?
A) It is worthwhile after all.
B) It is simply a waste of time.
C) It is hard to say whether it is good or bad.
D) It is too expensive for most young people.
52. What does the author say about the employment situation of British university graduates?
A) Few of them are satisfied with the jobs they are offered.
B) It usually takes a long time for them to find a decent job.
C) Graduates from elite universities usually can get decent jobs.
D) Most of them take jobs which don’t require a college degree.
53. What does the author say is important for university students besides classroom instruction?
A) Making sure to obtain an upper-second class degree.
B) Practical skills they will need in their future careers.
C) Interactions among themselves outside the classroom.
D) Developing independent and creative thinking abilities.
54. What is said to be an advantage of going to university?
A) Learning how to take risks in an ever-changing world.
B) Meeting people who will be helpful to you in the future.
C) Having opportunities of playing a leading role in society.
D) Gaining up-to-date knowledge in science and technology.
55. What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A) It is natural for students to make complaints about university education.
B) Few students are willing to bear the burden of debt incurred at university.
C) University education is becoming attractive to students who can afford it.
D) The prestige of the university influences employers’ recruitment decisions.
46. [D] It has little impact on their decision whether or not to quit smoking.
47. [A] Pass a law to standardise cigarette packaging.
48. [B] The number of smokes has dropped more sharply than in the UK.
49. [A] Prime Minister Cameron has been reluctant to take action.
50. [C] They made more British people obese.
51. [A] It is worthwhile after all.
52. [D] Most of them take jobs which don"t require a college degree.
53. [C] Interactions among themselves outside the classroom.
54. [B] Meting people who will be helpful to you in the future.
55. [D] The prestige of the university influences employers" recruitment decisions.
46. A it is unfair to those climate-venerable nations.
细节题，题目定位词除了Paris climate agreement之外还有一个重点定位词critical，问作者为什么对此协议是批判态度，在文中并不是很明确找到。第一段交代这项协议的具体时间内容等，第二段才谈到作者的批判态度。即we reveal just how deep this injustice runs,作者认为这是不公的，this injustice指代前两句，遭遇气候伤害的国家(少数4%国家)却承担一大半全球温室气体排放的责任，这是不公的。injustice=unfair
47.C They hardly pay anything for the problem they have caused
细节题。定位词“free-riders”，这个词在第三段，冒号后解释说，通过大量温室气体排造成严重问题，同时却不用承担气候变化的代价。In other words后面的句子也在解释同一件事情。原文出现cost和problem 在正确答案中以pay和problem复现。
48.C They have to bear consequences they are not responsible for
细节题，定位词“forced-riders”和second-hand smokers，定位在第四段，who are suffering from climate impacts despite having scarcely contributed to the problem.这些forced-riders没有助长全球变暖这个问题但却要承担气候问题的不良后果。答案为近义词替换：bear consequences=suffer from impacts，be not responsible for=scarcely contribute to
49.B There is no final agreement on where it will come from
细节题，定位词“100 billion”，定位到第7段，该段出现核心考点“however”，说明整个段落对这笔资金的使用是转折后的评价，即负评价。答案应该选择B或C两个包含负评价的词之一(均出现no)。其中B There is no final agreement on where it will come from是对应转折后面的两个不足中的第二个不足，即对There is also very little detail on who will provide the funds or importantly who is responsible for their provision的同义改写，即协议中对谁提供资金及谁承担募集资金的责任没有做明确说明，探讨资金来源而非资金花费的方式。
50. D putting in effect the policies in the agreement at once
细节题，定位词urgent action 对应第8段(倒数第二段)，there must urgently be a meaningful mobilization of the policies outlined in the agreement即动用协定中拟定的政策，近义词替换put in effect(生效)=mobilization(动用)，及原词复现。
51.C Teenagers’ mental problems are often too conspicuous not to be observed.
句子理解题。考查句子意思与上下文相同或相反，此处上下文无转折词，应读下一句话：Their risky behaviors can alert parents and teachers that serious problems are brewing.其意思是青少年的一些危险举动—喝酒吸毒等—能警告父母老师大事不妙了。对应答案青少年的心理问题是非常显而易见得观察到的。serious problems指心理问题，conspicuous behaviors指破折号中的危险举动的概括改写。
52. D Many hitherto unobserved youngsters may have psychological problems
细节题。对应第二段转折but a new study：有一些青少年(睡眠不足不爱活动等行为)可能会有着同样的得精神疾病(psychiatric symptoms)的危险，正确答案对此处是概括型改写，那些行为对应着unobserved youngsters，也与上文的易观察的行为有着转折关系，psychological problems对应psychiatric symptoms。
53. B Their behaviors do not constitute a warning signal.
细节题，定位词invisible risk,对应第三段，直接给出原因句：because their behaviors are not usually seen as a red flag. 同义替换warning signal=red flag
54.A They are almost as liable to depression as the high-risk group
细节题，顺序原则+定位词invisible group，至定位句but the invisible group wasn’t far behind the high-risk set,with more than 13%of them exhibiting depression. 定位即答案，两句话均表示，这一群体和高危青少年群体在表现抑郁症的比例上几乎不相上下。
55. B it provides new early-warning signals for identifying teens in trouble.
细节题，Carli和significance 对应最后一段it provides new early-warning signs for parents teachers and mental healthcare providers.